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whoownsinternet

So who actually owns the Internet? There are two answers to this question:

  1. Nobody
  2. Lots of people

If you think of the Internet as a unified, single entity, then no one owns it. There are organizations that determine the Internet’s structure and how it works, but they don’t have any ownership over the Internet itself. No government can lay claim to owning the Internet, nor can any company. The Internet is like the telephone system — no one owns the whole thing.

From another point of view, thousands of people and organizations own the Internet. The Internet consists of lots of different bits and pieces, each of which has an owner. Some of these owners can control the quality and level of access you have to the Internet. They might not own the entire system, but they can impact your Internet experience.

The physical network that carries Internet traffic between different computer systems is the Internet backbone. In the early days of the Internet, ARPANET served as the system’s backbone. Today, several large corporations provide the routers and cable that make up the Internet backbone. These companies are upstream Internet Service Providers (ISPs). That means that anyone who wants to access the Internet must ultimately work with these companies, which include:

  • UUNET
  • Level 3
  • Verizon
  • AT&T
  • Qwest
  • Sprint
  • IBM

Then you have all the smaller ISPs. Many individual consumers and businesses subscribe to ISPs that aren’t part of the Internet backbone. These ISPs negotiate with the upstream ISPs for Internet access.Cable and DSL companies are examples of smaller ISPs. Such companies are concerned with what the industry calls the last mile — the distance between the end consumer and Internet connectivity.

Within the backbone are Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), which are physical connections between networks that allow data exchanges. For example, while Sprint, Verizon and AT&T provide part of the Internet backbone’s infrastructure, the three networks aren’t intertwined. They connect together at an IXP. Several companies and non-profit organizations administer IXPs.

The individual computer networks that make up the Internet can have owners. Every ISP has its own network. Several nations’ governments oversee computer networks. Many companies have local area networks (LANs) that link to the Internet. Each of these networks is both a part of the Internet and its own separate entity. Depending on local laws, the owners of these networks can control the level of access users have to the Internet.

You might consider yourself to be an owner of the Internet. Do you own a device that you use to connect to the Internet? If so, that means the device you own becomes part of the enormous inter-networked system. You are the proud owner of part of the Internet — it’s just a very small part.

If no one owns the Internet, who is responsible for making sure everything works? 

Here are The Internet’s Caretakers

As mentioned earlier, the Internet works because of a system of rules called protocols. By following these protocols, computers can send information across the network to other computers. If there were no protocols, then there’d be no guarantee that the information sent from one computer could be understood by another, or that it’d even reach the right destination.

As the Internet evolves, these protocols must also change. That means someone has to be in charge of the rules. There are several organizations that oversee the Internet’s infrastructure and protocols. They are:
• The Internet Society: A nonprofit organization that develops Internet standards, policies and education.
• The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): An international organization with an open membership policy that has several working groups. Each working group concentrates on a specific topic, such as Internet security. Collectively, these working groups try to maintain the Internet’s architecture and stability.
• The Internet Architecture Board (IAB): An IETF committee, the IAB’s mission is to oversee the design of Internet protocols and standards.
• The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): A private nonprofit corporation, ICANN manages the Internet’s Domain Name System (DNS). ICANN is responsible for making sure that every domain name links to the correct IP address.

The Internet Society and IETF are open membership organizations. Both welcome the participation and input of Internet experts. They shape the way the Internet works and evolves.
ICANN, on the other hand, is a private organization. The exclusive nature of ICANN concerns some people. They argue that ICANN holds a lot of power over anyone who wants to register a domain name. ICANN makes money by accrediting vendors called registrars. These registrars then sell domain names to consumers and businesses. If you want to register a specific domain name, ultimately ICANN decides if you can have it.

While none of these organizations own the Internet, they each influence how the Internet works. The Internet has no central owner. While its structure remains carefully designed and maintained, the actual content on the Internet continues to be the untamed cyberspace we all know and love.

 

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If you’re a soccer fan, there’s no question that you’ll be tuning in to watch most, if not all, of the 64 matches that are going to take place in Brazil from June 12 to July 13. The World Cup is definitely something no self-respecting football fan will want to miss and why watch ad-cluttered reruns through TV subscriptions when you can watch these matches live, and for free.

Here are five websites that will be streaming World Cup matches legally, for free. There is a catch though. These live streams are all limited to residents of certain countries, so you’ll either have to be residents of these countries or take advantage of VPNs and other methods to get your fix. Still, if you’re a football fan, it’s probably worth the hassle. Let’s check out the list.

1. FIFA.Com TV

What better way to watch the World Cup online than via FIFA’s own live, and completely free, streaming service? FIFA.com TV started in 2007 when FIFA decided to move the whole broadcasting procedure and operations in-house, which means that you’ll be getting the stream directly from FIFA.

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The only catch is that it’s mostly only available in European countries; check the list here. FIFA also has a lot of short videos you can watch to get you in the mood for the World Cup.

2. BBC And IT

In the UK, the BBC and ITV will be sharing World Cup broadcast duties between them, on BBC’s iPlayer service and the ITV Player. Since the matches will be split between the two, you can check here for a comprehensive breakdown of what matches will be on which network.

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The BBC will be using the same tried-and-tested technology they used for their London Olympics 2012 live streaming, so you should expect a steady stream with very few hiccups.

3. ARD Das Erste And ZDF

Like in the UK, Germans will be splitting their World Cup matches between two broadcasters, ZDF and ARD’s Das Erste channel. The two stations will split the 64 matches between them, and while there doesn’t seem to be a concrete schedule yet, we do know that ZDF will be showing the opening ceremony on June 12 while the July 13 final will be shown on Das Erste.

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One thing to really look forward to is the fact that both websites will be offering additional multimedia content and additional camera angles beyond what you’ll get on TV.

4. NOS

NOS is the official Dutch broadcaster for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. One of the best things about NOS is that they won’t just be showing the 64 matches of the World Cup. The NOS World Cup 2014 portal has all the news, schedules and multimedia content you’ll need to keep yourself updated with everything that’s happening, all in one place.

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There might be a slight tendency to focus on Dutch national team news, but that’s understandable, and won’t matter one bit to fans of the Oranje.

5. SRF Player

The SRF Player is the official live stream of the Swiss SRG SSR public broadcasting organisation. SRG SSR is a non-profit public broadcaster that survives mostly on licensing fees, and thus both of their stations are free to watch online if you have a Swiss IP.

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Like NOS, SRF will also be a one-stop location for all the latest news and happenings in Brazil, so you can keep track of the news and watch all your football matches in one place.

 

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There are many aspects to consider when learning how to design a living room. Functional elements include the comfort of the space, furniture layout, traffic patterns and having the right spaces and furniture for entertaining and activities. The decorative aspect brings it all together to create a room that is visually appealing. Read on to learn more about design and decorating ideas for your living room.

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1.Determine what your living room will be used for.

Some uses for living rooms include entertaining, family games, reading and television watching. If you plan to entertain frequently, determine how many guests you will have to ensure youhave enough seating and space. If you don’t plan to have guests often, the room can be more of a cozy retreat for family. Make sure there is room and furniture for the various activities that will take place in your living room.

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2.Design for the space.

If the room is an awkward or unusual shape, very large or very small, traditional decorating ideas and furniture layout may not work in the room. Use smaller scale furniture pieces in a small room, even if you have to modify furniture or use unconventional pieces. Purchase larger, over sized pieces for a large room. Position pieces so that the room is uncluttered and easy to navigate.

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3.Create conversation areas.

Sofas and chairs should be grouped together so that people can talk to each other easily. The room should be arranged so that people walk around, not through, conversation areas.

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4.Find the room’s focal point.

In some rooms, this is an architectural feature like a window or fireplace. In rooms without built-in features, the focal point could be a large piece of furniture, art or wall hanging. If a television set ends up becoming the focal point of the room, consider housing it in an attractive armoire or cabinet, or using a mirror or art image onscreen when the television is not on. The room should be designed so that the focal point stands out and other items do not compete.

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5.Decide on the formality of the room.

A very formal room calls for traditional furniture, antiques and high end, sleek surfaces. A more casual room can use simpler fabric and eclectic decorations.

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6.Choose a theme or style.

Examples of styles include beach, modern, Asian and rustic as well as very specific themes like recreating a room from a specific time period. Choices in colors, fabrics, furniture and art are determined by the overall desired style.

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7.Achieve symmetry in the room.

Use pairs of furniture and decorations for a cohesive, symmetric look. This includes chairs, lamps and art.

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8.Make sure you like the decorating ideas.

There are certain “rules” that people follow when learning how to design a living room. While it’s necessary to stick to some guidelines to have a space that others will appreciate and that guests will be comfortable in, the room should also be appealing to the homeowner and members of the household.

 

Courtsey:Kavitha Chandran
 

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